Aplikasi Rekayasa Konstruksi dengan SAP2000
Elex Media Komputindo, 2004
x + 423 Hal.
3D modeling dengan Google sketchup
Andi Offset, 2009
x + 134 Hal.
Rp. 24.000 ,- (masih segel) (terjual)
Dewasa ini ada beragam aplikasi tentang rancang bangun. Salah satu aplikasi yang semakin berkembang dan mulai populer adalah Google SketchUp. Dengan menggunakan Google SketchUp, Anda dapat menciptakan hasil rancangan gedung eksterior dan interior bangunan, pemodelan furniture, pemodelan produk dan berbagai hasil rancangan lainnya.
Google SketchUp merupakan aplikasi rancang bangun yang ditawarkan Google secara gratis. Google SketchUp memiliki kelebihan pada kemudahan dan kecepatan penggunaannya. Secara instan, Anda akan mampu membuat sebuah desain rancang bangun yang menarik dan siap dipresentasikan.
Buku ini akan mengenalkan fitur dan kemampuan Google SketchUp bagi berbagai kalangan dibidang rancang bangun, Aplikasi ini bisa menjadi alternatif murah yang mudah digunakan. Dengan mempelajari buku ini, secara cepat anda akan mampu menguasai dan memanfaatkan Google SketchUp sesuai kebutuhan desain rancang bangun Anda.
Penulis menyadari bahwa buku ini tidak luput dari kesalahan dan masih jauh dari sempurna. Untuk itu, penulis membuka diri untuk segala bentuk tanggapan dan pertanyaan pembaca berkaitan dengan buku ini. Pembaca dapat menyampaikan saran, tanggapan dan pertanyaan melalui layanan forum interaksi pembaca yang tersedia di situs komunitas kami, yaitu http://www.smitdev.com, atau melalui e-mail email@example.com. Untuk berkonsultasi secara langsung dengan penulis, silahkan layangkan e-mail ke firstname.lastname@example.org.
Semarang, Oktober 2008
Mikael Sugianto, ST
Structural Design Guide to the ACI Building Code
Paul F. Rice & Edward S. Hoffman
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979
x + 470 Hal.
Rp. 53,000 ,- (terjual)
This book is intended to guide practicing structural engineers familiar with earlier ACI building codes into more profitable routine designs with the ACI 1977 Building Code (ACI 318-77).
Each new ACI Building Code expresses the latest knowledge of reinforced concrete in legal language for safe design application. Beginning in 1956 with the introduction of ultimate strength design, each new code offered better utilization of high-strength reinforcement and the compressive strength of the concrete itself. Each new code thus permitted more economy as to construction material, but achieved it through more detailed and complicated design calculations. In addition to competition requiring independent structural engineers to follow the latest code for economy, the reduction of shear and bond values from those previously allowed created a professional obligation to follow the latest code for accepted levels of structural safety.
The increasing complexity of codes has encouraged the use of computers for design and has stimulated the development of computer-based handbooks. Computer time and development of such new computer design programs are costly, however, and computers are not available to all engineers. Also, it is not economical to program all design problems encountered.
This book will guide the user to the various sections of the Code pertinent to design of common reinforced concrete structural elements. A brief explanation of the significance of these sections is presented, together with limits of applicability, the range in which results may control design; and, where possible, design short cuts to insure automatic conformance to the Code without calculations.
This Guide does not duplicate nor replace the ACI Code, its Commentary, design handbooks, or use of computers. It complements the ACI Code and Commentary, shows how to take full advantage of available handbooks based on ’63 to ’77 Codes, and should shorten time to develop computer design programs. It converts some code formulas from the review form (or trial designs) to direct design. It presents some simple appropriate formulas, tabulations, and charts for conservative longhand direct design.
Specifications for materials and special Code requirements superimposed upon the ASTM Specifications for materials are explained to aid the structural engineer to avoid difficulties with use of obsolete specifications.
The overall objective of this book is simply to save the Engineer time in reinforced concrete design.
HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE
Code requirements applicable to the design of structural building elements, scattered through various Code chapters, have been assembled for the analysis and design of one-way slabs, one-way joists, beams, the various types of two-way slab systems with and without beams, prestressed flexural members, columns, walls, and footings.
Most of the numerical examples are based on normal weight concrete with fc’ = 4,000 psi for flexural members and 4,000, 5,000, or 6,000 psi for columns; and the standard Grade 60 reinforcement. For lightweight aggregate concrete, see Chapter 15. Other concrete strengths used are so indicated.
Provisions new to the Code are noted as such for especial attention. It is assumed that users of the guide are familiar with reinforced concrete design and structural analysis as well as the terms and symbols in common use. Definitions of new nomenclature and symbols follow this introduction.
This guide is intended for use with the Code itself. Space limitations make it impracticable to include the Code. The Guide indicates the proper sections of the Code in the order that a designer would normally require their use for design of a particular building element. In the appropriate chapter for the element being designed, the Engineer will find the applicable Code sections indicated in parenthesis thus: “(Section 00.00.00)” following the explanations of their application.
Explanations of requirements difficult to interpret are followed by numerical examples. Where several Code equations or requirements are applicable simultaneously and must be solved to determine which controls, computer solutions over the usual range have been included as convenient tables or curves. Where examination of computer solutions over a wide range show simple approximations by longhand possible, such short cuts, together with limitations of range or accuracy are given. For especially difficult or unusual problems outside the scope of this guide, other references are cited to guide the Engineer to a quick source of information for detailed study. References to the ACI Code Commentary are indicated thus: “(Commentary 00.00.00).”
No attempt has been made to explain each individual Section of the Code in this book. A large number of Code provisions which have provoked little or no question of interpretation in past codes have been repeated essentially without change in the 1977 Code.
Other exclusions are precast concrete and composite (precast with cast-in-place concrete) design procedures which involve no separate design theory but merely consideration of different load conditions due to construction sequences. An alternate (working stress) design method is permitted by Appendix B of the Code, but the working stress is uneconomical. The new Code provisions for thin shell and folded-plate design serve only to include these structures within the scope of the Code. Similarly, the provisions for seismic design of special ductile frames in Appendix A are intended to provide generally accepted details of design for use with various regional seismic code requirements. The variety of plates, shells, and seismic details precludes their inclusion here. Any explanation of seismic details here would also of necessity duplicate the report on seismic details by ACI Committee 315* in which both authors participated and recommend.
Two indexes are provided, a subject index and a Code section reference index. The user wishing to locate all Code references to a particular subject, as well as the user interested in the interpretation of a particular Code section, should find this arrangement most convenient.
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE (ACI 318-77)
The 1977 Code revision appears in an almost completely new format. Each separate requirement has been given a separate sub- or sub-sub section number, providing improved clarity and more specific references. Portions of Chapter 7 (Details) particularly those dealing with splices have been relocated in Chapter 12 (Development) to save the user much back-and-forth cross-reference reading. Chapter 11 (Shear) has been rewritten in terms of force (instead of stress) with necessary new notation which facilitates teaching the subject. These format changes are on the whole improvements to facilitate use of the Code.
Substantive revisions in structural application have been held to a bare minimum. For the users’ convenience, these changes may be summarized very succinctly: (1) maximum column load, page 276; (2) two-way shear at rectangular supports, page 366; (3) limiting torsion from indeterminate frame action, page 240; (4) lateral load analysis of two-way slab and column frames, page 29; (5) stress block in compression, )9 1, page 32; and (6) design of brackets and corbels and deep beams, page 368.
Appendixes in the First Edition, 1972, showing then-new notation for Code and Commentary have been eliminated. Code users are now familiar with the 1971 notation, and each notation new to the 1977 Code is defined here as the explanations for it are given.
Theory of Elasticity
S.P.Timoshenko & J.N.Goodier
x + 544 Hal.
Rp. 61,000 ,-
Preface to the Third Edition
In the revision of this book for a third edition, the primary intention and plan of the first edition have been preserved—to provide for engineers, in as simple a form as the subject allows, the essential fundamental knowledge of the theory of elasticity together with a compilation of solutions of special problems that are important in engineering practice and design. The numerous footnote references indicate how the several topics maybe pursued further. Since these are now readily supplemented by means of Applied Mechanics Reviews, new footnotes have been added sparingly with this in mind. Small print again indicates sections that can be omitted from a first reading.
The whole text has been reexamined, and many minor improvements have been made throughout by elimination and rearrangement as well as addition.
The major additions reflect developments and extensions of interest and practical applicability that have occurred since the appearance of the second edition in 1951. End effects and eigensolutions associated with the principle of Saint-Venant are treated in Chapters 3 and 4. In view of the rapid growth of the applications of dislocational elastic solutions in materials science, these discontinuous displacement solutions have been given more explicit treatment as edge dislocations and screw dislocations in Chapters 4, 8, 9, and 12. An introduction to the moire method with a practical illustration has been added to Chapter 5. The treatment of strain energy and variational principles has been recast in three-dimensional form and embodied in Chapter 8, which now provides a basis for new sections on thermoelasticity in Chapter 13. The discussion of the use of complex potentials for two-dimensional problems has been extended by a group of new articles based on the now well-known methods of Muskhelishvili. Moreover, the approach is somewhat different, in that advantage has been taken of solutions previously developed in order to deal with analytic functions only. Further solutions for the elliptic hole, important in current fracture mechanics (cracks), are given explicit treatment. The discussion of axisymmetric stress in Chapter 12 has been simplified; and new sections have been added that replace the approximate analysis by a more exact one for the cut ring, as one turn of a helical spring. In view of its greatly increased applications, as in nuclear energy equipment, Chapter 13, on thermal stress, has been extended by inclusion of a thermoelastic reciprocal theorem and several useful results obtained from it; and by an introduction to thermal stress concentrations due to disturbance of heat flow by cavities and inclusions has also been added. In addition, treatment of two-dimensional problems has been supplemented by the two final articles, the last bringing the two-dimensional thermoelastic problems into connection with the complex potentials and Muskhelishvili procedures of Chapter 6. In Chapter 14, on wave propagation, a rearrangement gives prominence to the basic three-dimensional theory. A solution for explosive pressure in a spherical cavity has been added. The Appendix on numerical finite difference methods includes an example of the use of a digital computer to cope with a large number of unknowns.
Some of these changes offer simplifications of analysis arrived at in the experience of giving courses at Stanford University over the past twenty years. Many valuable suggestions, corrections, and even completely formulated problems with solutions, have come from numerous students and correspondents, to whom a blanket but most cordial acknowledgment is both unavoidable and inadequate.
Almost all the “Problems” are from examinations set and given at Stanford University. The reader may see roughly from these what parts of the book correspond to a course sequence occupying somewhat less than three hours per week for the academic year.
J. N. Goodier
Preface to the Second Edition
The many developments and clarifications in the theory of elasticity and its applications which have occurred since the first edition was written are reflected in numerous additions and emendations in the present edition. The arrangement of the book remains the same for the most part.
The treatments of the photoelastic method, two-dimensional problems in curvilinear coordinates, and thermal stress have been rewritten and enlarged into separate new chapters which present many methods and solutions not given in the former edition. An appendix on the method of finite differences and its applications, including the relaxation method, has been added. New articles and paragraphs incorporated in the other chapters deal with the theory of the strain gauge rosette, gravity stresses, Saint-Venant’s principle, the components of rotation, the reciprocal theorem, general solutions, the approximate character of the plane stress solutions, center of twist and center of shear, torsional stress concentration at fillets, the approximate treatment of slender (e.g., solid airfoil) sections in torsion and bending, and the circular cylinder with a band of pressure.
Problems for the student have been added covering the text as far as the end of the chapter on torsion.
It is a pleasure to make grateful acknowledgment of the many helpful suggestions which have been contributed by readers of the book.
S. P. Timoshenko
J. N. Goodier
Preface to the First Edition
During recent years the theory of elasticity has found considerable application in the solution of engineering problems. There are many cases in which the elementary methods of strength of materials are inadequate to furnish satisfactory information regarding stress distribution in engineering structures, and recourse must be made to the more powerful methods of the theory of elasticity. The elementary theory is insufficient to give information regarding local stresses near the loads and near the supports of beams. It fails also in the cases when the stress distribution in bodies, all the dimensions of which are of the same order, has to be investigated. The stresses in rollers and in balls of bearings can be found only by using the methods of the theory of elasticity. The elementary theory gives no means of investigating stresses in regions of sharp variation in cross section of beams or shafts. It is known that at reentrant corners a high stress concentration occurs and as a result of this cracks are likely to start at such corners, especially if the structure is submitted to a reversal of stresses. The majority of fractures of machine parts in service can be attributed to such cracks.
During recent years considerable progress has been made in solving such practically important problems. In cases where a rigorous solution cannot be readily obtained, approximate methods have been developed. In some cases solutions have been obtained by using experimental methods. As an example of this the photoelastic method of solving two-dimensional problems of elasticity may be mentioned. The photoelastic equipment may be found now at universities and also in many industrial research laboratories. The results of photoelastic experiments have proved especially useful in studying various cases of stress concentration at points of sharp variation of cross-sectional dimensions and at sharp fillets of reentrant corners. Without any doubt these results have considerably influenced the modern design of machine parts and helped in many cases to improve the construction by eliminating weak spots from which cracks may start.
Another example of the successful application of experiments in the solution of elasticity problems is the soap-film method for determining stresses in torsion and bending of prismatical bars. The difficult problems of the solution of partial differential equations with given boundary conditions are replaced in this case by measurements of slopes and deflections of a properly stretched and loaded soap film. The experiments show that in this way not only a visual picture of the stress distribution but also the necessary information regarding magnitude of stresses can be obtained with an accuracy sufficient for practical application.
Again, the electrical analogy which gives a means of investigating torsional stresses in shafts of variable diameter at the fillets and grooves is interesting. The analogy between the problem of bending of plates and the two-dimensional problem of elasticity has also been successfully applied in the solution of important engineering problems.
In the preparation of this book the intention was to give to engineers, in a simple form, the necessary fundamental knowledge of the theory of elasticity. It was also intended to bring together solutions of special problems which may be of practical importance and to describe approximate and experimental methods of the solution of elasticity problems.
Having in mind practical applications of the theory of elasticity, matters of more theoretical interest and those which have not at present any direct applications in engineering have been omitted in favor of the discussion of specific cases. Only by studying such cases with all the details and by comparing the results of exact investigations with the approximate solutions usually given in the elementary books on strength of materials can a designer acquire a thorough understanding of stress distribution in engineering structures, and learn to use, to his advantage, the more rigorous methods of stress analysis.
In the discussion of special problems in most cases the method of direct determination of stresses and the use of the compatibility equations in terms of stress components has been applied. This method is more familiar to engineers who are usually interested in the magnitude of stresses. By a suitable introduction of stress functions this method is also often simpler than that in which equations of equilibrium in terms of displacements are used.
In many cases the energy method of solution of elasticity problems has been used. In this way the integration of differential equations is replaced by the investigation of minimum conditions of certain integrals. Using Ritz’s method this problem of variational calculus is reduced to a simple problem of finding a minimum of a function. In this manner useful approximate solutions can be obtained in many practically important cases.
To simplify the presentation, the book begins with the discussion of two-dimensional problems and only later, when the reader has familiarized himself with the various methods used in the solution of problems of the theory of elasticity, are three-dimensional problems discussed. The portions of the book that, although of practical importance, are such that they can be omitted during the first reading are put in small type. The reader may return to the study of such problems after finishing with the most essential portions of the book.
The mathematical derivations are put in an elementary form and usually do not require more mathematical knowledge than is given in engineering schools. In the cases of more complicated problems all necessary explanations and intermediate calculations are given so that the reader can follow without difficulty through all the derivations. Only in a few cases are final results given without complete derivations. Then the necessary references to the papers in which the derivations can be found are always given.
In numerous footnotes references to papers and books on the theory of elasticity which may be of practical importance are given. These references may be of interest to engineers who wish to study some special problems in more detail. They give also a picture of the modern development of the theory of elasticity and may be of some use to graduate students who are planning to take their work in this field.
In the preparation of the book the contents of a previous book (“Theory of Elasticity,” vol. I, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1914) on the same subject, which represented a course of lectures on the theory of elasticity given in several Russian engineering schools, were used to a large extent.
The author was assisted in his work by Dr. L. H. Donnell and Dr. J. N. Goodier, who read over the complete manuscript and to whom he is indebted for many corrections and suggestions. The author takes this opportunity to thank also Prof. G. H. MacCullough, Dr. E. E. Weibel, Prof. M. Sadowsky, and” Mr. D. H. Young, who assisted in the final preparation of the book by reading some portions of the manuscript. He is indebted also to Mr. L S. Veenstra for the preparation of drawings and to Mrs. E. D. Webster for the typing of the manuscript.
S. P. Timoshenko
Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi UI, 1993
x + 308 Hal.
29,000 ,- (terjual)
KATA PENGANTAR TERBITAN PERTAMA
Berdasarkan pengalaman sebagai dosen mata kuliah Matrix dan Linear Programming di Fakultas-fakultas Ekonomi pada berbagai Universitas Negara maupun Swasta, penulis mendapat kesan betapa sulit bagi para mahasiswa untuk melengkapi studinya dengan buku-buku pelajaran. Buku-buku dalam bidang ini yang berbahasa Indonesia masih sangat terbatas. Buku-buku yang berbahasa asing sebenarnya tidak mustahil diperoleh, akan tetapi harganya tak terjangkau bagi mahasiswa pada umumnya, dan lebih-lebih lagi, isinya sukar dipahami karena masalah Bahasa.
Dari kesimpulan di atas penulis tergerak hatinya, untuk mengisi kekurangan-kekurangan buku pelajaran dalam bidangnya – kali ini mengenai Matrix. Maka jelaslah bahwa tujuan pokok di dalam menulis buku Pengantar Matrix ialah untuk menyediakan suatu text book dalam mata kuliah Matrix, bagi para mahasiswa baik pada Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Negara maupun Swasta. Selain itu, mengingat luasnya kemungkinan aplikasi teori matrix, maka Pengantar Matrix akan berguna bagi siapa saja yang ingin mempelajari lebih mendalam persoalan-persoalan input linear programming, ekonometri, statistik dan methode-methode kuantitatip lainnya yang mempelajari hubungan-hubungan (interrelationship) antara variables/faktor-faktor, akan tetapi berhubung berbagai alasan belum pemah mendapat kesempatan untuk mempelajari Matrix dengan mendalam.
Mengingat buku ini sifatnya hanya suatu pengantar, maka banyak teori-teori yang tidak dibuktikan, sebaliknya akan diperbanyak contoh-contoh/ ilustrasi-ilustrasi. Walaupun demikian akan diberikan daftar buku-buku matrix, khususnya diperuntukkan bagi para pembaca yang ingin memperdalam persoalan matrix.
Kritik-kritik serta saran-saran dari siapa saja yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki (menyempurnakan) isi buku ini akan penulis sambut dengan segala senang hati.
Akhimya, penulis tidak lupa menyampaikan ucapan terimakasih kepada Pimpinan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia dengan staf pengajamya, atasdorongannya untuk mempercepat penulisan serta penerbitan buku ini.
Jakarta, Agustus 1971
J. Supranto, MA.
KATA PENGANTAR TERBITAN KEDUA
Buku Pengantar Matrix ini semula diterbitkan dalam bentuk buku stensilan oleh Yayasan Badan Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia pada tahun 1971. Nama yayasan tersebut sekarang diganti dengan Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia (LPFEUI). Atas prakarsa Lembaga Penerbit FEUI buku ini kemudian dicetak.
Di dalam terbitan kedua ini sebetulnya tidak ada perubahan yang prinsip, hanya di sana sini ada penambahan-penambahan contoh-contoh atau soal-soal dan selain itu dilakukan koreksi-koreksi baik kesalahan ketik maupun simbol-simbol (notasi).
Segala kritik dan saran-saran yang sifatnya membangun untuk menyempumakan isi buku ini dari siapapun datangnya akan penulis sambut dengan segala senang hati.
Jakarta, Agustus 1974
J. Supranto, MA.
KATA PENGANTAR TERBITAN KETIGA
Di dalam terbitan ketiga ini selain diperbaiki kesalahan-kesalahan ketik maupun simbol-simbol (notasi) yang dipergunakan dalam penerbitan kedua, juga ditambah buku-buku terbitan terbaru untuk melengkapi daftar bacaan.
Kepada para pembaca yang telah memberikan usul-usul perbaikan, penulis ucapkan diperbanyak terimakasih.
Segala kritik dan saran-saran yang sifatnya membangun untuk menyempurnakan isi buku ini dari siapapun datangnya akan penulis samba[ dengan segala senang hati.
Jakarta, September, 1978
J. Supranto, MA.
KATA PENGANTAR TERBITAN KEEMPAT
Di dalam terbitan keempat ini selain dilakukan koreksi terhadap beberapa kesalahan cetak dan tambahan buku baru dalam DAFTAR BACAAN juga ada tambahan satu bab baru yaitu BAB VIII : HIMPUNAN KONVEKS DALAM RUANG BERDIMENSI N, yang lebih bersifat teori.
– Kepada para pembaca yang telah memberikan usul-usul perbaikan, penulis ucapkan diperbanyak terima kasih.
– Segala kritik dan saran-saran yang sifatnya membangun untuk penyempumaan isi buku ini dari siapapun datangnya akan penulis sambut dengan segala senang hati.
Jakarta, April 1984
J. Supranto, MA.
KATA PENGANTAR TERBITAN KELIMA
Di dalam edisi kelima ini telah dilakukan koreksi baik terhadap salah cetak simbol/notasi yang dipergunakan maupun kalimat yang tidak jelas juga ada penambahan buku acuan yang lebih mutahir.
– Kepada para pembaca yang telah memberikan usul/saran perbaikan penulis ucapkan terima kasih.
– Segala kritik dan saran-saran yang sifatnya membangun untuk penyempumaan isi buku ini dari siapapun datangnya akan penulis sambut dengan segala senang hati.
Jakarta Maret 1992.
J. Supranto, MA.
An Introduction to the Elastic Stability of Structures
Prentice Hall, 1976
x + 253 Hal.
Rp. 54,000 ,-